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ഗാന്ധിജിയുടെ ജീവിതത്തില‌ുടെ ഭാഗം-1

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Year

Month

Date

Event

1869

October

2

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi born of a Bania (Vaishya or trading caste) family at Porbunder, Kathiawar, the youngest of the three sons of Karamchand alias Kaba Gandhi, Prime Minister successively in Porbunder, Rajkot and Vankaner States, and his fourth wife Putlibai

1876



Goes to Rajkot with parents; attends primary school there till twelfth year; is betrothed to Kasturbai, daughter of Gokuldas Makanji, merchant.

1881



Enters High School at Rajkot

1883



Marries Kasturbai

1884-85



Takes to meat-eating in secret, but abandons habit after about a year to avoid deceiving his parents.
Father dies, aged 63.

1887



Passes Matriculation examination; joins Samaldas College at Bhavnagar (Kathiawar), but gives up studies at close of first term.

1888

September

4

Sails for England.

1888

October

28

Reaches London.
Lives on vegetarian diet. Takes lessons in dancing and music for a short time, thinking they are necessary parts of a gentleman’s equipment.

1889



Reads books on simple living and decides to reduce expenses by half; studies religious literature; reads Gita for first time and is deeply impressed

1890



Cultivates contacts with vegetarian movement; for short while conducts vegetarian club.

1890

June


Passes London Matric.

1890

September


Joins Vegetarian Society.

1891

June

10

Called to the Bar.

1891

12

Sails for India.

1891

July


Reaches Bombay.

1891

November


Applies for admission to Bombay High Court.

1892



Struggles with legal practice at Rajkot and Bombay; later settles down at former place as legal draftman.

1893

April


Leaves for South Africa, being engaged by a Muslim firm for legal work.

1893

May-June


Experiences colour bar in various forms; decides to remain and fight race prejudice.

1894

August

22

Founds Natal Indian Congress.

1894

September


Enrolled as Advocate of Supreme Court of Natal, being first Indian to be so enrolled.

Studies religious literature including the Bible, he Koran and Tolstoy’s The Kingdom of God is Within You.

1895



Gets more committed to South African Indian cause. Issues The Indian Franchise: An Appeal to Every Briton in South Africa.

1896

July


Returns to India and starts agitation on behalf of South African Indians.

1896

August

14

Publishes The Green Pamphlet at Rajkot.
Tours Bombay, Madras, Poona and Calcutta educating Indians in regard to grievances of South African Indians.

1896

November

30

Sails for South Africa with wife and children.

1897

January

13

Mobbed on landing at Durban by crowd excited by reports of his speeches in India on conditions of indentured Indian labour in South Africa.

1897

20

Declines to prosecute assailants.

1897

April

6

Submits long memorial to Chamberlain, Secretary of State for Colonies, regarding landing incidents, background.
Carries on programme of petitioning local and Imperial authorities, as well as of communicating with British and Indian public men regarding discriminatory laws.

1898-99



Represents to Indian National Congress, Colonial and Imperial authorities, against Locations and restrictions on Indians’ trading rights.

1899



Raises Indian Ambulance Corps in Boer War, which goes into action and is mentioned in dispatches; awarded war medal.

1900



Sends Dadabhai Naoroji draft resolution on South African Indian problem for Congress session.

1901

October

18

Sails for India.

1901

December

14

Reaches Rajkot via Porbunder.

1901

27

Moves resolution on South Africa at Congress.

1902

Jan28-Feb

1

Visits Rangoon.
Stays for a month with Gokhale at Calcutta.
Returns to Rajkot, settees down to practise.

1902

July


Shifts to and sets up practice at Bombay.

1902

November


Is called to South Africa to champion Indians’ cause against anti-Asiatic legislation in Transvaal.

1902

December


Arrives in Durban: leads delegation to Chamberlain.

1903



Enrolled as Attorney of Supreme Court of Transvaal; founds Transvaal British Indian Association.
Sends weekly statements regarding situation to Dadabhai Naoroji.

1903

June


Indian Opinion commences publication.

1904



Reads Ruskin’s Unto This Last : founds Phoenix Settlement near Durban (Natal); organizes hospital during outbreak of plague in Johannesburg; writes series of articles in Gujarati on dietetics which are later translated into English and published under the title Guide to Health.

1905



Opposes Bengal Partition, supports boycott of British goods. During Gokhale- Lajpat Rai deputation to Britain, appeals to Colonial statesmen to treat India, ‘an integral part of the Empire’, with consideration.

1906

May

12

Support ‘home rule’ for India ‘I the name of justice and for good of humanity’.

1906

27

Writes to brother, Lakshimidas, declaring disinterestedness in worldly possessions.

1906

June-July


Raises Indian Stretcher-bearer Corps in Zulu Rebellion; takes vow of brahmacharya for life.

1906

Sept

11

Addresses mass meeting of Indians at Johannesburg, which takes oath of passive resistance against newly promulgated Transvaal Asiatic Law Amendment Ordinance.

1906

Oct 21-Nov

30

In England on deputation to present Indians’ case to Colonial Secretary.

1906

December

18

Returns to South Africa

1907

Jan-Feb


Writes series of 8 articles in Gujarati on "Ethical Religion", published weekly in Indian Opinion and later, as a book.

1907

March


Asiatic Registration Act passed in Transvaal Parliament. Indians hold protest meetings.

1907

April


Sees Smuts at Pretoria, acquaints him with resolutions adopted at mass meetings. Pledges, in Indian Opinion, opposition to ‘Black Act’.

1907

August


Writes to Smuts criticizing Registration Act, suggesting amendments.
Passive resistance, picketing of Permit Offices; defends passive resisters in court.

1907

December


Smuts decides to prosecute Gandhiji.

1908

January

8

Asks Government for suspension of Registration Act, offers voluntary registration.

1908

10

Adopts word : ‘Satyagraha’ in place of ‘Passive Resistance’.
Sentenced to 2 months’ imprisonment for failure to leave Transvaal.

1908

21

Agrees to settlement on basis of voluntary registration, if Registration Act is repealed.

1908

30

Summoned to see General Smuts at Pretoria and released, on reaching a compromise.

1908

February

10

Nearly killed by Pathans who regard the compromise, under which Indians are expected to give their finger-prints voluntarily, as a betrayal of Indian interest; refuses to prosecute his assailants.

1908

March-June


Negotiates with Smuts for fulfillment of promise of repeal of Act which Smuts denies.

1908

July


Correspondence with Smuts released; Indians in mass meeting decide to refuse thumb impressions and burn registration certificates.

1908

August


Declares use of violence ‘harmful, even useless to uproot British rule’ in India.
Appeals to Smuts to repeal ‘Black Act’.
Registration certificates burnt at meetings; passive resistance resumed.

1908

September


Royal assent is given to amended Registration Act.
Smuts refuses Indian terms for settlement.

1908

October

15

Arrested and sentenced to 2 months’ rigorous imprisonment.

1908

December

12

Released from Volksrust Gaol
Indian National Congress adopts resolution on South Africa, criticizing the harsh, humiliating and cruel treatment of British Indians in South Africa as injurious to British Empire.

1909

January

16

Arrested at Volksrust for failing to produce registration certificate; on deportation, returned and is re-arrested, but released on bail.

1909

20

Writes to Press calling on Indians to prepare for final phase of struggle.

1909

February

25

Arrested at Volksrust; sentenced to 3 months.

1909

May

2

Transferred to Pretoria Central Gaol.

1909

24

Released.

1909

June

21

Leaves with Haji Habib, on deputation to England to represent Indian case.

1909

July

10

Arrives in London.
With the assistance of Lord Ampthill, works ceaselessly to educate influential British leaders, the public, and to move Imperial authorities.

1909

October

1

Writes to Tolstoy regarding Passive Resistance movement.

1909

November

9

The Times reports failure of Gandhi Government negotiations on Transvaal laws.

1909

10

Replies to Tolstoy, sends his biography by Doke.

1909

13

Leaves England for South Africa. Writes Hind Swaraj on board "s. s. Kildonan Castle".

1909

30

Reaches South Africa.

1909

December

29

Congress at Lahore adopts resolution praising Indians’ struggle in South Africa, urging ban on indenture.

1910

April

4

Sends Tolstoy copy of Indian Home Rule, seeks comment.

1910

May

8

Tolstoy replies: question of Passive Resistance of greatest importance not only for India but for humanity.

1910

30

Founds Tolstoy Farm.

1910

December

4

Pays memorial tribute to Tolstoy.

1911

January


Communicates with Smuts regarding amendments to Immigrants’ Restriction Bill; latter assures; no colour bar taint in laws.

1911

March

27

Interviews Smuts at Cape town.

1911

April

22

Smuts agrees to assurances demanded by Indians in reciprocation of suspension of Passive Resistance movement.

1911

May

3

Meets Smuts: ‘Provisional Settlement’ arrived on Smuts’ promise of repeal of Asiatic Registration and Immigrants’ Restriction Acts.

1911

June

24

Pledges loyalty to King-Emperor on coronation.

1911

December

8

Invites Gokhale to South Africa.

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